Outeniqua Conebush

Scientific Name
Leucadendron uliginosum R.Br. subsp. uliginosum
Higher Classification
Common Names
Duineknoppiesbos (a), Knoppiesbos (a), Knoppiesbossie (a), Koppiestolbos (a), Kraaltolbos (a), Outeniqua Conebush (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Near Threatened B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
Assessment Date
A.G. Rebelo, H. Mtshali & L. von Staden
This subspecies has a restricted range, with an Extent of Occurrence of 2879 km², but within its habitat it is abundant, occurring at more than 10 locations. Alien invasive plants, particularly escaped pine seedlings, continue to spread into its habitat at many localities, and is likely to lead to decline of native species if it is not urgently cleared. It therefore nearly meets the thresholds for Vulnerable under criterion B.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
This subspecies occurs in the Outeniqua Mountains between Cloete's Pass and Plettenberg Bay. An isolated subpopulation occurs in the Langeberg above Swellendam.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Tsitsikamma Sandstone Fynbos, South Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, North Outeniqua Sandstone Fynbos, South Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos, North Langeberg Sandstone Fynbos
It occurs on stony sandstone slopes in montane fynbos, 400-1500 m. Mature individuals are killed by fires, and only seeds survive. Seeds are stored in fire-resistant inflorescences, and released after fires. It is dioecious, with insect-pollinated male and female flowers occurring on separate plants.
This subspecies has lost about 16% of its habitat to timber plantations on the lower southern slopes of the Outeniqua Mountains in the past. Timber plantations are no longer expanding, and thus habitat loss has ceased, but plantations are a major source of invasive pine seedlings that are spreading into surrounding native vegetation. Field observations have noted invasive species spreading in to this taxon's habitat at several localities. It is difficult to estimate the number of locations, as its habitat is largely continuous with differing densities of alien invasive plants present. This species will generally persist in its habitat until invasive plants reach a density of more than 80% of surface area cover. There are some localized ongoing clearing efforts, particularly within protected areas, but the extent is unknown. It is however certain that there are many more than 10 locations.

This subspecies is abundant, occurring in large, extensive subpopulations. It often dominates its habitat in the Outeniqua Mountains. A continuing decline is inferred from competition from alien invasive plants that continue to spread and increase in density within its habitat.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Leucadendron uliginosum R.Br. subsp. uliginosum Least Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Rebelo, T. 2001. Sasol Proteas: A field guide to the proteas of southern Africa. (2nd ed.). Fernwood Press, Vlaeberg, Cape Town.

Rebelo, A.G., Mtshali, H. & von Staden, L. 2019. Leucadendron uliginosum R.Br. subsp. uliginosum. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/12/03

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Distribution map

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© D. Turner

© J. Purcell

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