Scientific Name
Orthochilus litoralis (Schltr.) Bytebier
Higher Classification
Eulophia litoralis Schltr.
National Status
Status and Criteria
Endangered B1ab(iii)
Assessment Date
L. von Staden, W.R. Liltved, E.G.H. Oliver & T.A. Oliver
EOO ± 2000 km², destruction of coastal fynbos habitats by urban expansion and invasion by the alien acacias along its entire distribution has resulted in the extensive decline of many subpopulations, three to five locations remain, and decline is continuing.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Kleinmond to Plettenberg Bay, Jonkershoek and Langeberg Mountains.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Overberg Dune Strandveld, Agulhas Limestone Fynbos, Boland Granite Fynbos, Albertinia Sand Fynbos, Hangklip Sand Fynbos, Swellendam Silcrete Fynbos
Well-drained, coarse sandy soils or coastal dunes, typically near sea level, with inland populations occurring at altitudes of ± 360 m.
Destruction of coastal fynbos habitats by urban development and invasion by the alien Australian Acacia along its entire distribution has resulted in the critical decline of E. litoralis populations (Liltved and Johnson, unpubl.).

May be rare (only one to four plants) or locally frequent at a given locality (Hall 1965).

Population trend
Fernkloof Nature Reserve (Hermanus) Hottentots Holland Nature Reserve (Jonkershoek).
Flowering November to January. Not fire dependent.
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Orthochilus litoralis (Schltr.) BytebierEN B1ab(iii)2015.1
Eulophia litoralis Schltr.EN B1ab(iii)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Eulophia litoralis Schltr.Lower Risk - Near Threatened Victor (2002)
Eulophia litoralis Schltr.Indeterminate Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Eulophia litoralis Schltr.Indeterminate Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hall, A.V. 1965. Studies in the South African species of Eulophia. Journal of South African Botany Supplement 5:1-248.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Liltved, W.R. and Johnson, S.D. Unpublished. The Cape Orchids - Wild orchids of the Cape Floral Kingdom.

Linder, H.P. and Kurzweil, H. 1999. Orchids of southern Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Martos, F., Johnson, S.D., Peter, C.I. and Bytebier, B. 2014. A molecular phylogeny reveals paraphyly of the large genus Eulophia (Orchidaceae): A case for the reinstatement of Orthochilus. Taxon 63(1):9-23.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

von Staden, L., Liltved, W.R., Oliver, E.G.H. & Oliver, T.A. 2006. Orthochilus litoralis (Schltr.) Bytebier. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/05/16

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Distribution map

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