Scientific Name
Phymaspermum pinnatifidum (Oliv.) Källersjö
Higher Classification
Athanasia pinnatifida (Oliv.) Hilliard, Pentzia pinnatifida Oliv.
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
Assessment Date
L. von Staden
A range-restricted endemic to Natal Group Sandstone Formations (EOO 1498 km²). An estimated seven to ten remaining locations continue to decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Pietermaritzburg district in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
KwaZulu-Natal Sandstone Sourveld, Moist Coast Hinterland Grassland
Sandstone grasslands, 450-920 m.
This species is threatened by severe, ongoing habitat loss to urban expansion between Pietermaritzburg and Pinetown. In this area, the species is known to survive on a few small grassland fragments, most of which are infested with alien invasive plants. In the Valley of Thousand Hills it is threatened by overgrazing, too frequent fires and spreading rural settlements. In the Camperdown district it has lost habitat to sugarcane cultivation, and continues to decline due to competition from alien invasive plants and grazing.

Recent field observations have recorded this species from at least seven locations. it is known from a large number of historical records, and at three of these, some intact habitat still remains. Most known remaining subpopulations occur on isolated grassland fragments, however, no population counts have been done, and therefore it is not known whether subpopulations are small.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Phymaspermum pinnatifidum (Oliv.) KällersjöLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Hilliard, O.M. 1977. Compositae in Natal. University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg.

Källersjo, M. 1985. Fruit structure and generic delimitation of Athanasia (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) and related South African genera. Nordic Journal of Botany 5:527-542.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Ruiters, A.K., Tilney, P.M., Van Wyk, B.E. and Magee, A.R. 2016. Taxonomy of the Genus Phymaspermum (Asteraceae, Anthemideae). Systematic Botany 41(2):430-456.

von Staden, L. 2018. Phymaspermum pinnatifidum (Oliv.) Källersjö. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/11/28

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Distribution map

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