Bitter Apple

Scientific Name
Solanum campylacanthum Hochst. ex A.Rich. subsp. panduriforme (Drège ex Dunal) J.Samuels
Higher Classification
Solanum delagoense Dunal, Solanum omahekense Dammer, Solanum omitiomirense Dammer, Solanum panduriforme Drège ex Dunal
Common Names
Apple Of Sodom (e), Bitter Apple (e), Bitterappel (a), Bitterappeltjie (a), Geelappel (a), Gifappel (a), Gifappeltjie (a), Intuma (z), Intuma-omncane (z), Intumemncane (z), Moralane (ns), Morolwana (tw), Poison Apple (e), Setlwane (ss), Tholana (ss)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Least Concern
Assessment Date
L. von Staden
Widespread, common and not in danger of extinction.
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West
Widespread across eastern tropical Africa, extending southwards to northern South Africa and to the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Grassland, Indian Ocean Coastal Belt, Savanna
Tropical to dry savanna, often weedy in old lands and other disturbed places.
Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Solanum campylacanthum Hochst. ex A.Rich. subsp. panduriforme (Drège ex Dunal) J.SamuelsLeast Concern 2015.1
Solanum panduriforme E.Mey.Least Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)
Solanum delagoense DunalLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Lester, R.N. 1997. Typification of nineteen names of African Solanum species described by A. Richard and others, including S. campylacanthum and S. panduriforme. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 125(4):273-293.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Retief, E. and Herman, P.P.J. 1997. Plants of the northern provinces of South Africa: keys and diagnostic characters. Strelitzia 6. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Samuels, J. 2010. Taxonomic relationships of eggplant wild relatives in series Incaniformia Bitter. In: J. Prohens and A. Rodriguez-Burruezo (eds.), Advances in Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant (pp. 89-95), Editorial de la Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia.

Samuels, J. 2012. Solanum incanum s.l. (Solanaceae): taxonomic relationships between S. incanum, S. campylacanthum, S. panduriforme and S. lichtensteinii. Kew Bulletin 67(3):401-411.

von Staden, L. 2015. Solanum campylacanthum Hochst. ex A.Rich. subsp. panduriforme (Drège ex Dunal) J.Samuels. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/05/22

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Distribution map

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