Scientific Name
Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br.
Higher Classification
Anisanthus caryophyllaceus (Burm.f.) Klatt, Antholyza caryophyllaceae (Burm.f.) Roem. & Schult., Freesia elimensis L.Bolus, Freesia herbertii Klatt ex N.E.Br., Freesia parva N.E.Br., Freesia xanthospila (DC.) Klatt, Gladiolus xanthospilus DC., Ixia caryophyllacea Burm.f., Montbretia xanthospila (DC.) Heynh., Tritonia xanthospila (DC) Ker Gawl. ex Spreng., Waitzia xanthospila (DC.) Heynh.
Common Names
Kammetjie (a)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Near Threatened B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
Assessment Date
P. Goldblatt & L. von Staden
EOO 12 466 km², between 25 and 35 locations remain of this formerly widespread and common species, now largely confined to small fragments due to over 77% habitat loss to crop cultivation. Decline continues.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Wolseley to Swellendam, Hermanus and the Agulhas Plain.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Lowland and alluvial shale and silcrete renosterveld and fynbos, occasionally in limestone fynbos.
This species' habitat is already more than 77% transformed, predominantly for crop cultivation. It has also lost habitat to urban expansion, and on the Agulhas Plain remaining subpopulations are threatened by competition from alien invasive plants. Most subpopulations occur on small fragments among crop fields, where they are subjected to heavy overgrazing as these small fragments are frequently overstocked.

A widespread, and formerly abundant species that has declined extensively due to habitat loss and fragmentation. Although still fairly common, decline continues, and subpopulations are increasingly isolated in small fragments of natural vegetation.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br.Declining 2012.1
Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br.Declining Raimondo et al. (2009)
Freesia elimensis L.BolusRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Manning, J.C. and Goldblatt, P. 2010. Botany and horticulture of the genus Freesia. Strelitzia 27:1-114. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Goldblatt, P. & von Staden, L. 2012. Freesia caryophyllacea (Burm.f.) N.E.Br. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/05/22

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Distribution map

© R.C. Turner

© R.C. Turner

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