Collar Satinflower

Scientific Name
Sparaxis roxburghii (Baker) Goldblatt
Higher Classification
Synnotia bicolor (Thunb.) Sweet var. roxburghii Baker, Synnotia roxburghii (Baker) G.J.Lewis
Common Names
Collar Satinflower (e)
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii)
Assessment Date
P. Goldblatt, D. Raimondo & L. von Staden
EOO, AOO <1 km², known from one location where there are fewer than 250 mature individuals. It has lost habitat to crop cultivation and decline is ongoing as the only remaining population is in the middle of fruit orchards.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Western Cape
Olifants River Valley between Clanwilliam and Citrusdal.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Graafwater Sandstone Fynbos
Shale-derived, stony clay soils.
Plants at one known location are threatened by habitat loss to expanding fruit orchards. Recruitment is poor, possibly due to seed predation.

Sparaxis roxburghii is an extremely rare and localized species. It was known from collections from a small area in the Olifants River Valley from the 1930s to 1950s. It could not be relocated and was thought to be extinct (Hilton-Taylor 1996), but after repeated searches, a small subpopulation was rediscovered in the same area as the historical records in 1998 (Goldblatt and Manning 2013). This remains the only known locality for this species, and a recent survey (2014) counted around 100 mature individuals.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Sparaxis roxburghii (Baker) GoldblattCR B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(ii)Raimondo et al. (2009)
Sparaxis roxburghii (Baker) GoldblattExtinct Hilton-Taylor (1996)
Synnotia roxburghii (Baker) G.J.LewisIndeterminate Hall et al. (1980)

Goldblatt, P. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the South African genus Sparaxis (Including Synnotia) (Iridaceae-Ixioideae), with two new species and a review of the Genus. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79(1):143-159.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2000. Cape Plants: A conspectus of the Cape Flora of South Africa. Strelitzia 9. National Botanical Institute, Cape Town.

Goldblatt, P. and Manning, J.C. 2013. Systematics and biology of the Cape genus Sparaxis (Iridaceae). Strelitzia 32. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Hall, A.V., De Winter, M., De Winter, B. and Van Oosterhout, S.A.M. 1980. Threatened plants of southern Africa. South African National Scienctific Programmes Report 45. CSIR, Pretoria.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Goldblatt, P., Raimondo, D. & von Staden, L. 2014. Sparaxis roxburghii (Baker) Goldblatt. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/05/22

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Distribution map

© I. Ebrahim

© I. Ebrahim

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