Scientific Name
Conophytum roodiae N.E.Br. subsp. sanguineum (S.A.Hammer) T.Smale
Higher Classification
Conophytum rugosum S.A.Hammer subsp. sanguineum S.A.Hammer
National Status
Status and Criteria
Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)
Assessment Date
A.J. Young & S.A. Hammer
A highly restricted taxon endemic to the Namaqualand region of the Northern Cape, South Africa. It occurs in one location that occupies an area of under 1 km². Based on the IUCN Red List Guidelines it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 8 km². There is ongoing decline to the population as a result of overgrazing and the impacts of severe drought as well as due to illegal collecting for the succulent horticultural trade.
South African endemic
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
information redacted, contact SANBI
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Namaqualand Klipkoppe Shrubland
Shallow grit pans on gneiss.
Habitat degradation is the main threat to this taxon. It occupies a very small site on rangelands. The growth habit of the plants in open grit pans makes it potentially vulnerable to trampling and grazing by livestock. The stability of these pans is essential to support these small succulents and any disturbance can be detrimental. There has been severe overgrazing in this region since 2016 as a result of extremely drought conditions. Furthermore, despite being well known, this taxon remains uncommon in cultivation. With a significant increase in the trade of Conophytums coming from Asian countries this species is suspected to be declining due to illegal collecting.

This taxon is known from a single, small subpopulation of less than 500 plants. The population is declining due to droughts, habitat degradation from livestock overgrazing and illegal collection.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Conophytum roodiae N.E.Br. subsp. sanguineum (S.A.Hammer) T.SmaleVU D2Raimondo et al. (2009)
Conophytum roodiae N.E.Br. subsp. sanguineum (S.A.Hammer) T.SmaleVU D2Victor (2002)
Conophytum rugosum S.A.Hammer subsp. sanguineum S.A.HammerRare Hilton-Taylor (1996)

Hammer, S. 2002. Dumpling and his wife: New view of the genus Conophytum. EAE Creative Colour, Norwich.

Hilton-Taylor, C. 1996. Red data list of southern African plants. Strelitzia 4. South African National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Smale, T. 2000. Conophytum roodiae and its relatives. British Cactus and Succulent Journal 18(2):101-107.

Victor, J.E. 2002. South Africa. In: J.S. Golding (ed), Southern African plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network Report 14 (pp. 93-120), SABONET, Pretoria.

Young, A.J. & Hammer, S.A. 2020. Conophytum roodiae N.E.Br. subsp. sanguineum (S.A.Hammer) T.Smale. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2023/12/03

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Distribution map

© A.J. Young

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