Scientific Name
Manulea aridicola Hilliard
Higher Classification
National Status
Status and Criteria
Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)
Assessment Date
L. von Staden
A rare, localized species (EOO 403 km²), estimated to occur at fewer than 10 locations and declining due to ongoing, severe overgrazing.
Not endemic to South Africa
Provincial distribution
Northern Cape
Southern Namibia and the Richtersveld, Northern Cape, South Africa.
Habitat and Ecology
Major system
Major habitats
Goariep Mountain Succulent Shrubland, Central Richtersveld Mountain Shrubland
Sandy flats, dry watercourses and rocky slopes.
Threatened by ongoing habitat degradation due to severe overgrazing in the western and eastern parts of its range. Subpopulations in mountainous areas in the central Richtersveld and in Namibia are not threatened.

A rare and poorly known species, recorded only a few times from the central mountains of the Richtersveld, but possibly overlooked. It is known from a single locality in southern Namibia, which is somewhat disjunct from the South African population, but this species' habitat in southern Namibia is botanically poorly explored due to access restrictions to diamond mining areas. It is likely to be declining in the Numees-Helskloof area, around Kuboes and north of Eksteenfontein due to severe overgrazing, but further eastwards grazing pressure in more remote mountainous areas is not as severe, and subpopulations are likely to be stable in these areas.

Population trend
Assessment History
Taxon assessed
Status and Criteria
Citation/Red List version
Manulea aridicola HilliardVU B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v)2015.1
Manulea aridicola HilliardLeast Concern Raimondo et al. (2009)

Hilliard, O.M. 1990. More new names and combinations in Scrophulariaceae-Manuleae. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46(3):337-342.

Hilliard, O.M. 1994. The Manuleae: a tribe of Scrophulariaceae. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Raimondo, D., von Staden, L., Foden, W., Victor, J.E., Helme, N.A., Turner, R.C., Kamundi, D.A. and Manyama, P.A. 2009. Red List of South African Plants. Strelitzia 25. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

Snijman, D.A. 2013. Plants of the Greater Cape Floristic Region 2: The extra Cape flora. Strelitzia 30. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.

von Staden, L. 2015. Manulea aridicola Hilliard. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. Accessed on 2022/05/20

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Distribution map

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